The oldest dog breed in Europe , canine carnivores

Maltese (Latin name: Maltes), also known as Maltese, Maltese Island Hound. English name MalteseDog. Height: 20-24cm, weight: about 3.2kg.

Native to the island of Malta, it the oldest dog breed in Europe originating from the Medieval Mediterranean region. 

As early as during the reign of King Henry VIII of England , the Maltese dog won the favor of the royal class with its graceful, beautiful and charming appearance, and prevailed in the upper class.
MalteseMaltese is named after thwhich originated in the Mediterranean Sea .
MalteseMaltese is also known as Maltese, or translated as "Magic Angel".This is the oldest dog breed in Europe, native to the Mediterranean and England.

MalteseMalteseTerritory - Malta Island. Because of its deep affection, it is a pet that is deeply loved by children and women, but the dog is slightly sensitive and can not stand the noise. It is a delicate small dog breed. It has a noble, intelligent (and sometimes even cunning) attitude. and very attached to its lord

People who are interested in owning a very beautiful puppy rather than a practical dog, the Maltese is the right choice.

Although the Maltese dog does not require much space, it requires careful care, and its long coat must be thoroughly brushed every day. This dog does not shed and must dry the long hair after every outing on rainy days, so it is not suitable for people who cannot spend time doing these things.

MarzisThe Maltese is elegant, striking and affectionate. The hair is smooth, silk-like long hair, and can reach more than 20 cm in adults. No undercoat.

Despite their tiny size, Maltese dogs seem to be unaware of fear. Its confidence and emotional reactivity are alluring. He is the gentlest of all puppies, yet he is playful and lively.

Queen Elizabeth I frequently praised Maltese dogs in court documents. In 1864, the Maltese dog association was held for the first time in Biimingham, England. Since then, it has been very popular among all classes in Europe and America.

In 1930, the famous painting "The Lion Dog from the Island of Malta" created by the famous painter Edwin Lance fully displayed the style of the Maltese dog and became famous. The American Kennel Club registered the Maltese in 1888.

Over the centuries, the Maltese dog has been a family pet for the literate, wealthy, and high-quality people because of its elegance, loyalty, and love of cleanliness.

Maltese dogs have low requirements for exercise, are particularly child-friendly, have good physique and live a long life (14-16 years, sometimes more than 18 years).

Native to the Mediterranean island of Malta. As early as the reign of King Henry VIII of England, the Maltese dog has won the favor of the royal class with its graceful, beautiful and charming appearance and prevailed in the upper class. Queen Elizabeth I frequently praised Maltese dogs in court documents.

MalteseAn ancient breed with a history of more than 3,000 years on the island of Malta, from Egyptian tombs in the 13th century BC, statues similar to this dog can be found. This dog is about

In 55 BC, he arrived in England with the Roman army. Before the Middle Ages, it has always been the daily companion of European nobles, and its popularity has not diminished since then. The coat colors are pure white, tan and light yellow, with pure white being the most valuable.

Maltese is one of the small toy dogs , with Bichon Frise pedigree, with long silky pure white long hair, in sharp contrast with the black and bright oval and shaped eyes, it is more sweet and lovely. Friendly and alert personality, gentle and soft, lively and intelligent. As early as the fourth century BC, Maltese had become a toy dog ​​of the Roman and Greek ladies. Its ancestor may be the earliest toy dog ​​in Europe.

When Henry VIII was brought into England, it became a must-have in the court. The missing caring companion dog , which dates back to the time it was first brought into Europe. It is good at catching mice, but it has always been the companion dog of European aristocrats.

The early writer John Cassius once described in his works that Maltese "was already a pet of noble ladies in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, and the ancient Romans used to carry it in their sleeves to go out. It was with its owner. Sharing the same car, the same bed, and eating very little, what a delightful pet."

The Maltese dog was popular in England when Henry VIII of England and became the beloved puppy of the court lady. It was first exhibited in the United States in 1877 as a Maltese poodle. In 1879 a colored dog was exhibited as a Maltese scorpion. The American Kennel Club registered the Maltese in 1888.

Morphological characteristics

The adult Maltese dog is about 40 cm long, with legs about 12 cm long, and its weight is mostly between 2.5 and 3.2 kg. The coat is white silky soft fine hair, which can grow very long, sometimes a little bit. light yellow.

The abdomen is not very hairy, and pink skin is visible. The eyes, nose, and paws are black ( pink in puppyhood) . The ears are drooping triangles and cannot be fully erected when alert. The tail is about 10 cm long and is usually rolled over the back.


Eyes very wide apart, deep and rounded, with dark rims enhancing a refined and alert expression. The snout is moderately long, delicate and tapering but not long, with a black nose. Dental clamp or scissors bite. Length is 6/11 of height from ground to withers.

Wider, the width is slightly more than half the length. Skull slightly longer than snout; zygomatic width equal to its length, slightly more than half the length of the head. Longitudinal view, its shape is slightly egg-shaped; the upper part of the skull is flat, and the occipital bone is slightly obvious; the frontal bone is protruding, and the eyebrow arch is well developed; the anterior depression of the deep wrinkle is not obvious, and the side of the parietal bone is slightly convex.

The nose drops clearly, forming a 90-degree angle. The bridge of the nose is long; when viewed from the side, the front part is vertical. The nostrils are large, round and completely black.

Muzzle: The snout is 4/11 of the length of the head; therefore slightly less than half the length of the head. The under-eye area is partially contoured. Its depth is exactly 20% less than its length. The sides of the snout are parallel, but not square when viewed from the front, due to the curved join between the foreface and the sides. There is a distinct deep wrinkle in the middle of the snout.

Lips: When viewed from the front, the upper lip appears as a very open arch at the junction. Not deep, with inconspicuous lip commissures. The upper and lower lips meet just right. In this case, the lower jaw determines the shape of the base of the snout. The lip must be completely black.

Jaws/Teeth: Appearance is normal, shallow, with perfect articulation. Since the branches of the mandible are straight, their anterior portion is neither protruding nor retro-sloping. Perfectly arched, with incisors in a scissor bite. White; well developed and fully developed.

Eyes: Large, lively, focused, larger than expected; tending to be round in shape. The eyelids are close to the eyeballs, the eyeballs never sink, level with the surface of the head, slightly protruding. Seen from the front, no white eyes appear; dark tan; eye frames are black. The ears are nearly triangular, with a width of about a third of their length. Positioned above the zygomatic arch, it hangs close to the sides of the skull, with almost no erection.


The trunk is compact, with the height at the withers equal to the length from the withers to the base of the tail. Scapula oblique, elbows strong and close to torso. Topline flat, ribs well spread. The chest is quite deep, the waist is tight and strong, and the abdomen is slightly tucked below. The tail is long feathered, gracefully set on the back, and the tip of the tail is more than 1/4 to the side of the body.


A single coat, i.e. no nap layer. The coat is pure white, with fawn or lemon on the ears permitted, but not the best.

At one time, pets thought that the purchase of Maltese should be slightly rounded on the top of the head and covered with long hair, with black hair on the tip of the nose and a beard-like scissor bite, low and drooping ears, covered with long feathers, and big eyes. Round and brownish, with black eye sockets, long and narrow body, broad chest , short and feathered limbs. The hair is smooth, silk-like long hair, and can reach more than 20 cm in adults. No undercoat.

Maltese's character is quite gentle and well-behaved, not afraid of life, very hospitable, very caring, and very good at acting like a spoiled child. Although there are times when small dogs tend to be neurotic and nervous, they are basically dog ​​breeds that are easy to raise and take care of.

The typical characteristic of the Maltese dog is its beautiful and beautiful coat. Should choose pure white, no miscellaneous hair, hair smooth as silk, about 22 cm long, short thinking, rough and thin coat; weight and body height should not exceed the standard, eyes should be large; round and black, avoid light color; nose The color of black should be light; the limbs should be short, the body should be long, and the back should be straight.

The coat is very long, straight like silk without curling, and the coat color is pure snow-white best, or milky white. The Maltese dog has a long body and a long coat with silky luster, which is very elegant. Expressive and lively in action. The whole body is glossy straight hair, no underhair. The coat color is pure white, and some ears have a light twisted oak color, although it is not serious, but it is slightly indecent.

distribution range

The Maltese dog comes from the island of Malta or Sicily and is one of the oldest breeds, around 3000 years old. It has been a play dog ​​since ancient times and has a high reputation in the world. Both Asia and Europe have been introduced. Maltese is named after the island of Malta, which originated in the Mediterranean Sea.

Legend has it that in ancient times, the Finiki sailed to Malta in 500 BC . Maltese is believed to have been a play dog ​​since ancient times and is one of the oldest play dog ​​breeds. Later, it was introduced to France in the 15th century.

The Maltese dog was not regarded as a house dog, but a noble dog held in the hands of a noble lady, and soon became the pet dog of the upper class such as princes and nobles. Introduced to the United Kingdom in the 19th century, and with the power of the empire on which the sun never sets , it quickly became a new favorite around the world.

In the remaining handicrafts and works of art along the Mediterranean coast, the lifelike artistic image of the Maltese dog is often seen. Arrived in England with the Roman army around 55 BC. Statues similar to this dog can be found in Egyptian tombs dating from the 13th century BC. Before the Middle Ages, this dog had always been the daily companion of European nobles, and its popularity has not diminished since then.

MalteseThis kind of dog has always been the pet of noble ladies in ancient Greece, Egypt, and ancient Rome, and became the French court pet in the 15th century.

In 1813, the island of Malta was occupied by the British, and Queen Victoria ordered the tribute dog from the island. At the end of the 19th century, the dog won the chief throne of toy dogs with its gorgeous qualities, and was also very popular in the United States.

In the 20th century, this kind of dog regained a firm position in Italy. In the 1950s, the Italian Bianca successively bred about 30 Maltese dogs that have won awards at home and abroad, so that the popularity of this dog has been maintained until the 1980s.

The dog ranks first in Japan's play dog.
China has imported Maltese dogs from abroad, and the number of them is very small, and the price is generally more than 10,000 yuan. There are a few in northern Chinese cities.
The Maltese, as a small toy dog, is better suited to living in an apartment in the city.
living habits

MarzisThe Maltese is a toy dog ​​covered in white silky hair from head to toe. It has a gentle and affectionate manner, eager and lively action, and despite its small size has a satisfying energy as a companion dog. Maltese dogs are gentle little dogs that make family pets. You can safely let it play with children. Usually in good health and vigorous until later in life.

Marquis's white coat is silky, people often associate it with ornate cushions and luxurious backgrounds, but in fact he is a brave little guy, often showing a tenacious character. Despite his small stature, he is a good watchdog.

Marquis is hostile to strangers, but has deep affection for his master. It's cute, sometimes mischievous, and very personable. Although the Maltese dog does not require much space, it requires careful care, and its long coat must be thoroughly brushed every day.

This dog does not shed. But it grows to the ground and often brings a lot of dirt into the house, especially on cloudy and rainy days. Since it is sensitive to moisture and has to be dried after every outing on rainy days, it is not suitable for those who cannot take the time to do these things.

Due to its small size, it is suitable for adults or families with docile older children. It has long been the pet of the wealthy and literati, which has largely cultivated its elegant, clean and meticulous character.

Maltese dogs have low requirements for exercise, are particularly child-friendly, have good physique and longevity (can live 14-16 years, sometimes more than 18 years). It has a noble, intelligent (and sometimes even cunning) attitude. And very attached to its owner. If you want to have a very beautiful puppy rather than a practical dog, the Maltese is the right choice.
beauty care

The Maltese dog is also known as the devil. The standard Maltese has a long, silky coat, and a longer, shorter body. The whole body is pure white plump long hair, but its eyes and nose are black, and its movements are lively and bold. The neck is about 1/2 of the height, giving a strong and powerful feeling. The curly tail is raised on the back, with lush and long radial feathers, giving people a very elegant feeling. Therefore, when giving it beauty, pay attention to the modification of the head.
Beauty Tips
1. The hair on the lower edge of the eyes can be cut in half, the hair on the bridge of the nose starts from the midline and is combed out to both sides, and the thicker beard and long hair around the lips are cut off at the root, and the length of the beard on both sides is about 1/3 of the head length.
2. The fur on the back hangs down the sides along the midline of the back. Use a comb and scissors to trim 1 cm around the tail root. The tail hair should be separated from left to right, and a small amount of oil can be applied to the tail root.

3. The circumference of the foot should be trimmed into a circular shape along the toes with scissors, and the hair growing between the toes should be carefully cut off.

4. For dogs with a lot of body hair, you can use your hands to lift the outer body hair, and use a comb to comb the inner hair. When combing a layman, it can be combed three or four times from top to bottom, and must not be combed to the end. When trimming the hem, let the dog stand on the trimming table, hold the comb in the left hand to press the long hair, fix one side of the comb on the trimming table, and then trim it, so that it can be trimmed into a beautiful hem. For the ligation of the hair on the head, see Shih Tzu ligation.
hair care
The most charming thing about the Maltese dog is its flowing and slender hair. Hair is as white as snow and silky soft and smooth. Of course, this kind of healthy and beautiful hair also requires the owner's careful care to get it. And the care of Maltese dog hair, in addition to the cleaning and maintenance of the hair itself, the daily healthy diet and life also play a very important role in the care of the hair.

Maltese's hair is slender and white, so it needs to be brushed at least once a day. Remove the dust and dirt on the hair, massage the dog's body at the same time, promote the blood circulation of the body, and make the new hair healthier. In addition to grooming, the owner must bathe the dog regularly to thoroughly clean the body. Of course, the number of baths does not need to be too frequent, it can be determined according to the physical condition of the dog.

To care for the dog's hair, the shampoo used for bathing should be specially designed for dogs, and you need to choose the appropriate shampoo according to the texture of the dog's hair. For example, sterilization type, moisturizing type and so on. If the hair texture is too fluffy and dry, you should choose a moisturizing or maintenance type. In addition, Maltese's hair is mostly pure white, so a bleaching shampoo is also a criterion for selection.

In addition to grooming and washing care. To ensure the luster and elasticity of the dog's hair texture, it is necessary to prepare more high-protein foods for it every day, and at the same time supplement enough nutrients such as vitamin E and vitamin D. In addition to dog food, meat, dry vegetables and other foods, you can also prepare some seaweed food, fresh vegetables and so on for your dog. Avoid foods high in sugar, salt and starches. In addition, each character can properly feed the dog a little animal liver, which is very beneficial to promote the health of the Maltese dog's hair.

Its long hair must be thoroughly combed and brushed every day, because its long hair often brings a lot of dirt into the house, especially on rainy days. Since it is very sensitive to moisture, it must be wiped dry after every outing on rainy days.
Feeding skills

1. Check whether the height of the dog is within the general limit; whether the weight is within the normal standard range. Don't buy it if it's too big or too small.
2. Check whether the dog's coat is long and straight, and whether the hair is as soft as silk, pure white and lustrous. If the hair is too short, too thick, messy, curved or too thin, it is a defective breed.
3. Whether the eyes meet the standard of being large and round and see things clearly, and whether the eyes and the eye circumference meet the standard of black and dark brown. Eyes and eye area are too light to buy.
4. Whether the dog's nose is smooth and dark; whether the ears are long and close to the sides of the head, and have the basic characteristics of long hair.
5. Whether there is long hair on the head, whether there are long beards on the lips, and whether the incisors meet the requirements of scissor bite.
6. Whether the front legs are short and straight, the hind legs are short and strong, the toes are round and hairy and black, and the legs are covered with a lot of long hair.
7. Whether the body is short, well-proportioned and sturdy, with a flat and straight back and waist. Do not buy inferior species with a long body and a bowed waist.
8. It is not advisable to waste money on those with a light nose, red eyes, and curly hair.
9. Dogs with eye mucus around the eyes, fouling around the anus, barking indiscriminately, dejected, loss of appetite, and scattered tail hair should generally be regarded as sick dogs.

Maltese dogs should pay attention to suitable indoor or outdoor sports. It is very important to care for the dog's coat. It should be brushed once a day, which can not only keep the coat clean and beautiful, but also reduce the number of baths; do not feed too much to avoid obesity; change it in the morning and evening for drinking; In order to avoid the long claws easily scratching the body; to keep the ear canal clean, often use absorbent cotton to clean. Maltese dogs like to be clean and dry, so they should be kept away from humid environments; Maltese dogs have a long lifespan, and as long as they are properly fed and managed, the longest life expectancy can reach eighteen or nine years old.

MalteseIn the diet of Maltese dogs, meat is required every day. The smallest needs about 180 grams, and the larger ones need 200-250 grams. The meat should be cooked with a small amount of water and then cut into small pieces, then add the same amount of plain dry ingredients or biscuits with no or less sugar, mix well with water, divide it into two feedings in the morning and evening, and give some fresh drinking water .

To raise this kind of dog, it is best for the owner to be an elderly person who is relatively free, because it needs more time to take care of it, such as bathing, grooming, trimming its toes and claws, and removing dirt, etc., all need a certain amount of time. When feeding food, it is necessary to grasp the weight. If the food provided is too much, it will cause it to gain weight, become dull and lose the advantages of liveliness and flexibility. In life, neither let him develop a arrogant appearance, nor allow him to be too indulgent, otherwise, he will develop the bad habit of not listening to the master's orders.

Maltese dogs are more lively and jumping, so they should be allowed to move in the yard at a certain time every day, or take it to the street or go for a walk in the park, which can promote its ability to digest and absorb, and keep it normal. appetite. Maltese is a beautiful dog with a white body like snow. To keep its coat white and supple, it must be combed frequently. Because it has long hair all over its body, it needs to be combed all over the body. The method is: before combing, spray conditioner or shampoo first , then use a comb or soft brush to comb from top to bottom. As long as it is brushed every day, it can keep its coat smooth and supple, not knotted or messy, white and clean, and beautiful.
Maltese dog demon angel~In addition to doing the above-mentioned dry cleaning, it is also necessary to do regular wet cleaning for it. After each wet wash, use a dry towel to absorb the moisture, then dry it with a hair dryer. Comb while blowing. As for how long to wet wash, it depends on the season and climate. In principle, the interval can be longer when the weather is cool; the interval is shorter when the weather is hot, and the wet cleaning should be done every 5-7 days.

The dog's claws need to be trimmed regularly, otherwise it will scratch human flesh and damage human clothing. In the high temperature season, in addition to bathing the dog more, pay more attention to the cleaning of the dog's ear. Before taking a wet bath, remove the earwax, and use a disinfectant absorbent cotton to moisten the ear canal and the surrounding area of ​​the ear.

Dirt, but pay attention to the cotton ball not to carry water, strictly prevent water from staying in the ear. Before each bath, plug the dog's ear canal with a cotton ball to prevent water from entering. Because this dog is prone to otitis in summer.

Usually, you should always pay attention to observe the mental state of the dog. If the spirit is not good, it may be sick. Pay attention to whether the dog's nose pad is dry and hot; whether there is diarrhea in the stool; whether the appetite has decreased. If the appetite is not good, it is likely to suffer from digestive system diseases. Once the above abnormal situation is found, it is necessary to find out the cause in time, and take targeted measures to give treatment;
Market value
Maltese is expensive because of its scarcity and pure blood. Generally, the pups are about three months old, and the value is about 3,000, while the adult dog can get 10,000 income.
The price trend of major cities in the country
growth and reproduction

Seed selection
The purpose of selecting breeds is to select good breed dogs for mating and breeding, so that the excellent qualities of dogs can be consolidated and developed in their offspring, so that the undesired shortcomings of people will gradually disappear in their offspring.

When male dogs and female dogs of the same breed with the same excellent traits are bred, they can not only ensure the pure breed of their offspring, but also consolidate and develop the good qualities of their parents in their offspring.

This kind of mating is called purebred. Breed. Using a male dog of a good breed to mate with a female dog of another breed, because they have different good traits, they can get offspring with different good qualities of both parents.

This kind of breeding is called interbreeding. The use of two different species of male and female beasts to mate, the breeding of new breeds or offspring with new traits, this kind of breeding is called mixed-breed hybridization, such as the use of male wolves and excellent female dogs. optimal age for breeding

Animals all have a specific time for sexual maturity , and the specific time for sexual maturity is not the best age to produce offspring, and the same is true for dogs. Taking medium-sized dogs as an example, they begin to become sexually mature at the age of 7-8 months after birth. At this time, although both male and female dogs have the ability to produce offspring, their physical development is not yet sound, and the offspring reproduced at this time are also Not so good.

For black-backed, wolf-green , spirit orangutan, Kunming dog , etc., the best age for their first breeding offspring: bitches should start from 18 months or 20 months after birth, when their bodies are fully developed , and also has the ability to feed lactating dogs, so the female dog should be bred in the third estrus ; the male dog develops and stereotypes later than the female dog, so the best dog age for the first mating should start at two years old.

The breeding age of male dogs can be extended from two years old to seven or eight years old. In order to obtain excellent offspring of well-bred dogs, the nutrition of male and female dogs must be strengthened before breeding, and attention should be paid to proper training and exercise for them. Keep their bodies healthy and keep them motivated to work.

estrus and estrus
Sexually mature dogs come into heat twice a year. The spring estrus period is from March to May, the autumn estrus period is from September to November, and the interval between the two estruses is about 6 months. As far as bitches are concerned, bitches in estrus are marked by vaginal bleeding: vaginal bleeding generally lasts about 21 days, but vaginal bleeding in older bitches may be a day or two shorter during estrus:

The main characteristics of bitches in heat:
1. The labia of the estrus bitch are swollen, hypertrophic, protruding, pink at the initial stage, obviously congested and a small amount of mucus is accompanied by blood flowing out of the bitch's vagina. As the estrus period continues, the amount of blood flowing out increases day by day, and the color of the blood changes from pink to dark red: on the 8th day of estrus, the blood volume is the largest and the thickest, and the blood color is the darkest.

After the ninth day, the blood volume gradually decreased and the concentration became thinner. At this time, the labia gradually became dark red. As the swelling of the labia subsides at this time and wrinkles begin to appear, the bitch in heat enters ovulation . The ovulation period lasts about 5-6 days, when the female dog in heat is willing to accept the male dog to straddle .

With the extension of the ovulation period, the courtship performance of the estrus bitches became more and more intense. Until the 16th day of the estrus period, the bitches began to hate the male dog's entanglement. At this time, the vagina of the estrus bitch still had blood flowing out, and on the 21st day, the vaginal The bleeding stops, the swelling of the labia subsides, and the bitch is in estrus.

2. The female dog in estrus has an excited expression. As the estrus continues, the bitch's excitement increases, the expression is more restless than usual, the bark is louder, and the eyes are bright. During the estrus period, the bitch is restless and has a sharp loss of appetite.

The tethered bitch keeps barking in the air. If the dog owner presses the bitch's waist or strokes the dog's tail with his hand, the bitch will not stand still. , or the dog's tail is tilted to one side, the dog's labia is constantly twitching, and the vulva is frequently opened and closed.

At this time, when a sexually mature male dog is used to test oestrus, the hind limbs of the estrus female dog are spread, and there is an active acceptance of mating. During the dog's estrus period, the dog owner must closely observe the above-mentioned changes and expressions of the estrus bitch, and must remember the day when the bitch begins to estrus (the first day of vaginal bleeding), so as to calculate the best bitch.

The best mating day: Only when the best mating day is bred can the conception rate and litter size of the bitch be improved.

Best Breeding Days and Breeding

According to observational studies and dog-raising practice, the estrus period of a normally developed female dog is 21 days, and the 10th to 13th day of the female dog's estrus is the best mating day. Breeding bitches are the most fertile.

Therefore, the first mating is generally carried out on the 10th day of the female dog's estrus, and then once a day, for 4 consecutive matings, and the last mating is the 13th day of the female dog's estrus; Mating once every other day and twice on the best mating day.

As far as the changes of the external genitalia of the estrus bitch , the 10th day of the best breeding day, the swollen labia of the estrus bitch has obviously subsided, the color is dark red, and there are wrinkles around the labia, and the dog owner touches the estrus with fingers.

When the female dog's labia, the dog's labial nerve is very sensitive, there will be rhythmic contractions, the female dog will instinctively spread the hind limbs, appearing to accept mating. As far as the female dog's physiological condition is concerned at this time, when the female dog accepts the mating of the male dog and the uterus is stimulated by sperm, ovulation begins in 12 to 14 hours, and the ovulation time lasts for 12 to 48 hours.

The sperm injected by the male dog into the female dog's body survives in the female dog's uterus for about 48 hours. The best conception effect can be obtained by continuous mating or mating at intervals of Et during the ovulation period of the 10th to 13th day of the female dog's estrus.

Feeding and management of pregnant dogs
The gestation period of the female dog is 58 to 65 days, with an average of 62 days. Among them, the gestation period of large and medium-sized dogs is about 63 days, and the gestation period of small dogs such as pugs is about 60 days. In order to ensure that the breeds of the offspring are pure, in the first few days after the female dog is bred, the female dog is not allowed to approach the male dogs of other breeds, so as to avoid impure offspring.

The female dog should be carefully fed during pregnancy, the feed should be rich in nutrients, the quantity should be sufficient, and she can eat freely. You must also feed some cartilage, green vegetables, cod liver oil, etc.

Pregnant dogs should have appropriate activities. The female dog in the first month of pregnancy can carry out professional training activities every day; from the second month of pregnancy, the pregnant dog should stop training, and are not allowed to jump or participate in professional activities. Take it for a two hour walk. Inappropriate activity can be harmful to pregnant dogs.
Prevention method
Prevention and treatment of common diseases and self-protection of dog breeders
The most serious and common canine diseases are now briefly introduced as follows
Rabies : It is an acute infectious disease caused by a filterable virus . The patient is zoonotic, and the harm is very serious. The mortality rate is almost 100%. So far, there is no cure. Rabies vaccine is the only effective preventive measure. At present, there are two kinds of vaccines for the prevention of rabies produced in my country: lyophilized rabies attenuated cell vaccine and rabies vaccine. Freeze-dried rabies attenuated cell vaccine, diluted with sterilized water, inject 1 ml subcutaneously regardless of the size of the dog. The immunity period is 1 year. Rabies vaccine, 3 ml per injection for dogs weighing less than 4 kg; 5 ml per injection for dogs weighing more than 4 kg, and the immunization period is half a year. In addition, the injection of penta-vaccine or hexa-vaccine is a good method to prevent various diseases such as rabies: although there are no obvious adverse reactions after the above-mentioned vaccines are inoculated, they should be injected according to the instructions.
  1. Ascariasis: It is a widespread intestinal parasitic disease that seriously affects the normal development of puppies and young dogs.
  2. Pseudorabies : This disease is an infectious disease caused by a variety of domestic animals and wild animals. The incidence of pigs is high, and dogs are also infected. Dogs are infected by eating beef, pork, rat meat, etc. suffering from pseudorabies, or caused by wound infection of dogs. Sick dogs have a high mortality rate, but do not excrete the virus. At the beginning of the illness, staring, depressed, scratching the wound. The wounds were red and swollen, the sick dog groaned, refused to eat, vomited, chewed on foreign objects, pharynx paralysis, drooling, and died of rabies-like symptoms. The disease is mainly based on prevention: dogs are strictly prohibited from entering the pig house , and it is a good strategy to inject attenuated pseudorabies vaccine for puppies over 4 months old.
  3. Canine parvovirus disease: This disease is a canine infectious disease that has been found in the feces, urine and saliva of sick animals in recent years. Mainly harms puppies. Enteritis-type patients are lethargic, have elevated body temperature, refuse to eat, vomit, have diarrhea, discharge loose stools, watery stools and jet-type tomato-like stinky stools, and soon die from dehydration. Myocardial-type sick dogs have mild diarrhea and often die suddenly. Difficulty breathing. The disease is easily misdiagnosed as enteritis, dysentery, pneumonia and so on. The mortality rate of sick dogs is 10% - 50%. The sick dogs are treated by veterinarians. The injection of antitoxin No. 1 has a good effect on the disease. Injection of canine parvovirus vaccine or pentavirus vaccine before the onset of the disease is the best strategy to prevent this disease.
  4. Canine distemper : This disease is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus, mainly harming puppies aged 3-12 months. Loss of appetite, vomiting, lethargy, chills, cough, high fever, foul-smelling or bloody feces in sick dogs; bronchitis or pneumonia with photophobia, tearing, runny nose or pus-like nasal fluid; body spasm-like movements, screaming and running, Foaming at the mouth or falling to the ground with convulsions, the course of the disease is long or short, and there are often sequelae of hindquarters weakness after recovery, and some die after a few months. The disease mostly occurs in the cold October-April, and the fatality rate is high. The treatment of this disease can be injection of analgin , intramuscular injection of penicillin or oral sulfonamides. Weaning puppies to be vaccinated with penta vaccine is the best strategy to prevent this disease.
  5. Canine Infectious Hepatitis : This disease is an acute septic infectious disease caused by canine infectious hepatitis virus, which mainly affects puppies under 1 year old. At the beginning of the disease, the body temperature rose to 41 ℃, fatigue, thirst, diarrhea, blood in the stool , photophobia, arched back and so on. Puppies have a high mortality rate; adult dogs can recover after enduring the dangerous period. Infusion and supplementation of vitamin B and vitamin C for the treatment of this disease, injection of antibiotics to prevent infection, and oral liver Taile to protect the liver.
  6. Canine TB: There are three types of TB: human, bovine, and avian . Canine tuberculosis is caused by human or bovine tuberculosis bacteria. Puppies are prone to disease and are also a threat to humans. Dogs suffering from open pulmonary tuberculosis should be culled and buried deep to avoid spreading infection.
  7. Meningitis: The disease is caused by infection with the pathogenic bacteria meningitis. Paroxysmal muscle rigidity or twitching, and opisthotonus in sick dogs. Sick dogs have no therapeutic value and should be culled and buried deep.
  8. Canine encephalitis : This disease is caused by nerve cells being destroyed, or caused by canine distemper virus , or caused by the invasion of protozoa in the brain, or other viral infections. The main symptoms are high fever, vomiting, lethargy, neck stiffness, convulsions, unconsciousness, and death from respiratory failure. Symptomatic treatment can be given in the early stage of the disease; severe cases should be culled and buried deep.
  9. Pneumonia: The sick dog is lethargic, has poor appetite, likes to lie down, likes to drink water, and has a body temperature of 39.5-40 °C. There are obvious signs of pneumonia. Antongding can be injected to lower the body temperature for this disease, and the effect of intramuscular injection of penicillin or erythromycin is also very good.
  10. Canine fungal pneumonia: This disease is a fungal infection and can also infect humans. Symptoms of fungal pneumonia: cough, difficulty breathing, ascites, diarrhea, severe dehydration, etc.
  11. Canine cold : This disease is caused by rain, cold, fatigue and malnutrition. Sick dogs have anorexia, high fever, tearing, coughing, rapid breathing and pulse, depression, etc.